Immune mechanisms of long-term efficacy with allergen immunotherapy are associated with decreases in IgE-dependent activation of mast cells and tissue eosinophilia. This suppression of type 2 immunity is accompanied by early induction of regulatory T cells, delayed immune deviation in favour of TH1 responses, and induction of local and systemic IgG, IgG4, and IgA antibodies. These “protective” antibodies can inhibit the allergen-IgE complex formation, mast cell triggering, and IgE-facilitated TH2-cell activation. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of innate responses in allergic inflammation mediated by type 2 dendritic cells and innate lymphoid cells. These cell types are under the regulation of cytokines such as thymic stromal lymphopoietin and IL-33 derived from the respiratory epithelium. Novel subsets of regulatory cells induced by immunotherapy include IL-35 producing regulatory T cells, regulatory B cells, a subset of T follicular regulatory cells, and IL- 10 producing group 2 innate lymphoid cells. These mechanisms point to biomarkers that require testing for their ability to predict clinical response to immunotherapy and to inform novel approaches for better efficacy, safety, and long-term tolerance. (J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021;9:1769-78; J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2022 Mar;149(3):791-801.)
Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. These cookies ensure basic functionalities and security features of the website, anonymously.
5 months 27 days
This cookie is set by the Google recaptcha service to identify bots to protect the website against malicious spam attacks.
Set by the GDPR Cookie Consent plugin, this cookie is used to record the user consent for the cookies in the "Advertisement" category .
Set by the GDPR Cookie Consent plugin, this cookie is used to record the user consent for the cookies in the "Analytics" category .
The cookie is set by the GDPR Cookie Consent plugin to record the user consent for the cookies in the category "Functional".
Set by the GDPR Cookie Consent plugin, this cookie is used to record the user consent for the cookies in the "Necessary" category .
Set by the GDPR Cookie Consent plugin, this cookie is used to store the user consent for cookies in the category "Others".
Set by the GDPR Cookie Consent plugin, this cookie is used to store the user consent for cookies in the category "Performance".
This cookie is native to PHP applications. The cookie is used to store and identify a users' unique session ID for the purpose of managing user session on the website. The cookie is a session cookies and is deleted when all the browser windows are closed.
Analytical cookies are used to understand how visitors interact with the website. These cookies provide information on metrics such as number of visitors, bounce rate, traffic source, etc.
The _ga cookie, installed by Google Analytics, calculates visitor, session and campaign data and also keeps track of site usage for the site's analytics report. The cookie stores information anonymously and assigns a randomly generated number to recognize unique visitors.
This cookie is installed by Google Analytics.
Set by Google to distinguish users.
Installed by Google Analytics, _gid cookie stores information on how visitors use a website, while also creating an analytics report of the website's performance. Some of the data that are collected include the number of visitors, their source, and the pages they visit anonymously.
YouTube sets this cookie via embedded youtube-videos and registers anonymous statistical data.