[The history of Freezing-of-gait in Parkinson's disease - from phenomena to symptom].
- Transversal Translational Medicine
The background of the freezing-of-gait (FOG) phenomenon in Parkinson's syndrome is presented in this review. The following issues are addressed: characterization of the symptom freezing and its subtypes that challenge standardized diagnostic procedures; available assessment methods generating freezing-related parameters that not only support clinical studies but can also be applied in everyday care, and current therapy options. FOG exists in different subtypes, and clinical and diagnostic definitions are limited by subjective characterization and semi-standardized tests. FOG-specific drug options are not existing, apart from the optimization of dopaminergic medication, which may also be due to the poor discriminatory power of standardized diagnostics. This is also true for deep brain stimulation. Both of these therapeutic options may be due not only to the complex neural network alterations as a motor-control correlate of FOG, but also because of challenging diagnostic assessments methodologies. Innovative, wearable, sensor-based diagnostic strategies are currently being developed, and supportive therapies using tools and technologies focusing on 'cueing' are becoming increasingly well accepted. Even though high level evidence is missing, they provide a helpful treatment option for individualized therapy. It can be assumed that these options will become particularly popular due to technological progress and likely alter the everyday treatment challenges faced by doctors and therapists.