Structural features of an extended C-terminal tail modulate function of the chemokine CCL21.
- Immuno-Pharmacology and Interactomics
The chemokines CCL21 and CCL19, through binding of their cognate receptor CCR7, orchestrate lymph node homing of dendritic cells and naive T cells. CCL21 differs from CCL19 via an unstructured 32 residue C-terminal domain. Previously described roles for the CCL21 C-terminus include GAG-binding, spatial localization to lymphatic vessels, and autoinhibitory modulation of CCR7-mediated chemotaxis. While truncation of the C-terminal tail induced chemical shift changes in the folded chemokine domain, the structural basis for its influence on CCL21 function remains largely unexplored. CCL21 concentration-dependent NMR chemical shifts revealed weak, nonphysiological self-association that mimics the truncation of the C-terminal tail. We generated a series of C-terminal truncation variants to dissect the C-terminus influence on CCL21 structure and receptor activation. Using NMR spectroscopy, we found that CCL21 residues 80-90 mediate contacts with the chemokine domain. In cell-based assays for CCR7 and ACKR4 activation, we also found that residues 92-100 reduced CCL21 potency in calcium flux, cAMP inhibition, and beta-arrestin recruitment. Taken together, these structure-function studies support a model wherein intramolecular interactions with specific residues of the flexible C-terminus stabilize a less active monomer conformation of the CCL21. We speculate that the autoinhibitory intramolecular contacts between the C-terminal tail and chemokine body are disrupted by GAG binding and/or interactions with the CCR7 receptor to ensure optimal functionality.