Recent progress in discovering the role of carotenoids and metabolites in prostatic physiology and pathology—A review—Part II: Carotenoids in the human studies.
Among the vast variety of plant-derived phytochemicals, the group of carotenoids has continuously been investigated in order to optimize their potential application in the area of dietary intervention related to chronic diseases. One organ that has been especially targeted in many of these studies and clinical trials is the human prostate. Without doubt, carotenoids (and their endogenous derivatives-retinoids and apo-carotenoids) are involved in a plethora of intra- and intercellular signaling, cell growth, and differentiation of prostate tissue. Due to the accumulation of new data on the role of different carotenoids, such as lycopene (LYC) and beta-carotene (BC), in prostatic physiology and pathology, the present review aimed to cover the past ten years of research in this regard. Data from experimental studies are presented in the first part of the review, while epidemiological studies are disclosed in this second part. The objective of this compilation was to emphasize the present state of knowledge about the most potent molecular targets of carotenoids, as well as to propose promising carotenoid agents for the prevention and possible treatment of prostatic diseases.