"Association between dietary inflammatory index (DII) and risk of irritable bowel syndrome: a case-control study".
BACKGROUND: Pathophysiology of IBS is not well recognized; however, several studies have shown the possible relationship between diet and risk of IBS. We assessed the ability of the dietary inflammatory index (DII) to predict the risk of IBS. METHODS: The subjects were 155 IBS cases and 310 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (aged >/=18 years). The participants were recruited from June, 2019 to March, 2020. IBS was recognized using the Rome IV criteria. DII score was computed based on dietary intake using a 168-item FFQ. The DII score was calculated based on energy-adjusted amounts of nutrients using residual method. Logistic regression models were used to estimate multivariable odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: The mean DII score was significantly higher among IBS patients in comparison to healthy controls (0.78 +/- 2.22 vs. - 0.39 +/- 2.27). In crude model, increase in DII as continuous variable was associated with a significant increase in the risk of IBS (OR (95% CI): 1.26 (1.1-15.38)). Furthermore, the association remained significant even after adjusting for age and sex (OR (95% CI): 1.28 (1.1-17.41)) and after multivariate adjustment (OR (95% CI): 1.38 (1.2-1.56)). In crude, age and sex adjusted and multivariate-adjusted models subjects in fourth quartile of DII had higher OR in comparison to subjects in first quartile. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a possible positive association between a pro-inflammatory diet and the risk of IBS. Thus, encouraging intake of more anti-inflammatory dietary factors and reducing intake of pro-inflammatory factors may be a strategy for reducing risk of IBS.