Histone deacetylase inhibitors dysregulate DNA repair proteins and antagonize metastasis-associated processes.
- Cancer Metabolism Group
PURPOSE: We set out to determine whether clinically tested epigenetic drugs against class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) affect hallmarks of the metastatic process. METHODS: We treated permanent and primary renal, lung, and breast cancer cells with the class I histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) entinostat (MS-275) and valproic acid (VPA), the replicative stress inducer hydroxyurea (HU), the DNA-damaging agent cis-platinum (L-OHP), and the cytokine transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta). We used proteomics, quantitative PCR, immunoblot, single cell DNA damage assays, and flow cytometry to analyze cell fate after drug exposure. RESULTS: We show that HDACi interfere with DNA repair protein expression and trigger DNA damage and apoptosis alone and in combination with established chemotherapeutics. Furthermore, HDACi disrupt the balance of cell adhesion protein expression and abrogate TGFbeta-induced cellular plasticity of transformed cells. CONCLUSION: HDACi suppress the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and compromise the DNA integrity of cancer cells. These data encourage further testing of HDACi against tumor cells.