Diagnostic and therapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles in B-cell malignancies.
- Tumor Stroma Interactions
Extracellular vesicles (EV), comprising microvesicles and exosomes, are particles released by every cell of an organism, found in all biological fluids, and commonly involved in cell-to-cell communication through the transfer of cargo materials such as miRNA, proteins, and immune-related ligands (e.g., FasL and PD-L1). An important characteristic of EV is that their composition, abundance, and roles are tightly related to the parental cells. This translates into a higher release of characteristic pro-tumor EV by cancer cells that leads to harming signals toward healthy microenvironment cells. In line with this, the key role of tumor-derived EV in cancer progression was demonstrated in multiple studies and is considered a hot topic in the field of oncology. Given their characteristics, tumor-derived EV carry important information concerning the state of tumor cells. This can be used to follow the outset, development, and progression of the neoplasia and to evaluate the design of appropriate therapeutic strategies. In keeping with this, the present brief review will focus on B-cell malignancies and how EV can be used as potential biomarkers to follow disease progression and stage. Furthermore, we will explore several proposed strategies aimed at using biologically engineered EV for treatment (e.g., drug delivery mechanisms) as well as for impairing the biogenesis, release, and internalization of cancer-derived EV, with the final objective to disrupt tumor–microenvironment communication.